Storage & Transmit of Commodities and its Problems:

                      Fumigation is a method of pest control that uses a toxic gas to exterminate pests in an enclosed space.The space is sealed to prevent the gas escaping to areas that are not being treated, for environmental and public safety, and to keep the gas at the required concentration for the appropriate time to be effective. Commodities such as food grains, oil seeds, pulses, extractions, spices, tobacco, textile, timber etc., which are major items in today’s export market, are highly susceptible to infestation from stored grain pests during storage and transit.  Kalinga Pest Control provides high quality services on Fumigation Services for safe storage and transmission of your valuable products.

Fumigants are used to exterminate exotic pests in a wide range of environments such as:

  • ship holds;
  • grain stores;
  • shipping containers;
  • whole buildings;
  • food processing equipment.

It is also used to protect many types of goods and objects, including:

  • commodities;
  • goods that require treatment for inter-government import or export control; and
  • smaller objects such as museum items that need preserving without damage.

KPC Work Features on Fumigation Services:

                           KPC provides quarantine and pre-shipment fumigation of export commodities in bulk, liner, chartered vessels and sea-going containers at all ports and Inland Container Depots (ICD’s). KPC has over 12 establishments all over Odisha, spread across all states and ports, and accredited with the following:

Regulatory compliance and best practice:

           KPC’s unrivaled regulatory expertise ensures the fumigation chemicals and the services we provide are used safely and comply with necessary legislation and industry best practice in all business sectors and countries we operate in. KPC is accredited to operate fumigation services in countries where we operate. We also follow voluntary Codes of Best Practice for the safe and sustainable use of products determined by bodies such as RAMPS, the Register of Accredited Metallic Phosphide Standards (RAMPS) for safe fumigation.

Kalinga Pest Control God-won Fumigation Services

See more information about our expertise in regulatory compliance.

 Shipping fumigation:

                Shipping fumigation involves the treatment of the hold of a ship, either full of a commodity or empty, or the treatment of certain areas within the superstructure of the ship itself. The majority of shipping fumigation is done while the vessel is in port. However, under certain government requirements and permits “fumigation in-transit” is permitted where the vessel’s holds are treated during the voyage.

Building and grain store fumigation:

KPC’s ProFume treatment has proved successful in cereal mills, bakeries, confectionery plants, animal feed mills, grain and seed storage facilities and for treating some museum artifacts.

fumigation by Kalinga Pest Control Fumigation Services

  • It is not approved for use on bulk commodities in some countries (eg the UK), therefore all raw materials and finished goods must be removed to leave the empty building or processing machinery for treatment.
  • ProFume fumigation treatment only requires a short closure time (compared to other fumigant services) of up to 48 hours to completion, minimizing the impact on businesses.

Silo fumigation :

        Silo fumigation is an effective method for treating large amounts of grain during storage in a silo. It is a viable, alternative service to shipping or container fumigation and can be done at a lower cost due to the volume of most silos.

The silo must meet protocols for the product to be suitable for treatment within it. It is recommended that silos are inspected every time before use.

Container fumigation

There are two common sizes of container:

  • 20ft long x 8.6ft high (33 cubic meters); and
  • 40ft long x 8.6ft high (76 cubic meters).

There are also 10’ and 45’ long containers as well as a ‘high cube’ containers that are 9.6’ high.

There are three approved ways to fumigate containers:

  1. Container pressure decay: the container is pressurised to a set value to see if it can maintain that value for set time, then the container is classified as ‘gas tight’ and can be fumigated without being covered with a tarp to provide a seal for fumigation.
  2. Tarped container fumigation: the container is covered with a gas-proof fumigation tarp and sand snaked around all of the edges to achieve and maintain a gas seal.
  3. Un-tarped container fumigation: the container is inspected for damage and deemed to be suitable for fumigation without tarping. It is also recommended that if this method is used the internal side of the doors is sealed as an added precaution.

Building fumigation

Whole-building fumigation is used when an infestation of a pest in buildings such as homes and offices is severe and alternative pest eradication measures are not sufficient. The whole building is covered in a tent or all entry and exit points sealed depending on the construction of the building to contain the fumigation gases.

Pests that may require whole-building fumigation include:

  • termites;
  • fleas;
  • ticks;
  • bed bugs;
  • SPI.

The fumigation gas is introduced for the required time, so that it penetrates all parts of the building that the pest has infested. The gas is then ventilated from the tent to enable the building to be reoccupied.

Organic food fumigation:

CO₂ has been used for many years in the organic food industry to control insects. Carbon dioxide fumigation is accepted by The Soil Association and other organic certification bodies as a suitable pesticide treatment for produce such as cereal, pulses, nuts, grains and dried fruits.

Relatively small quantities (1–20 tonnes) of food products can be treated and several treatments can be carried out simultaneously.

Chamber fumigation

A fumigation chamber is a purpose-built structure, normally containing solid walls, used primarily to conduct fumigations. Chambers are normally fitted with built-in circulation and extraction equipment. A fumigation chamber must be pressure tested every 6 months to ensure it is still fit for purpose.


Stack fumigation involves the tarping of goods or commodities under a gas-proof tarp. The tarp is then sealed to the ground via a number of methods to ensure the gas level is maintained under the tarp.

Stacks can range in size from less than 1 cubic meter to over 1000 cubic meters. In theory every fumigation conducted under a gas proof tarp is considered a stack fumigation.

Treating exports

With exports, the holds of the ship have to be inspected for cleanliness and insect activity prior to loading. If any pest activity is found, fumigation treatment may be required. The product going into the hold may also be infected, which could require fumigation treatment.

Treating imports

With imports, the consignment may have been infected prior to loading offshore and as part of import requirements, the consignment (as well as the vessel itself) must be pest and disease free.


ISPM15 stands for the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measure #15 which refers to the treatment of wood packaging or pallets to an international requirement. Currently there are two approved treatment options under the standards:

  • fumigation with methyl bromide;
  • heat treatment.

ISPM15 treatments can only be conducted by businesses that have signed up to the system and are audited to their standards. On completion of an approved ISPM15 treatment the treatment provider applies a certified stamp to the wood packaging or pallets which is internationally recognised.

Fumigation gases:

The gases used for fumigation are selected based on the type of fumigation required and local legislation controlling which products can be used in each country. Below are some of the main gases in use worldwide.

Sulfuryl fluoride

Sulfuryl fluoride is the active ingredient of a gas which comes in two forms. The regulations in the country in which the gas is registered and its label requirements determine what the gas can be used to treat.

  1. Treatment of structures such as food-processing facilities, cereal grain mills, grain stores, food or feed storage warehouses, where insect activity has been detected and the use of normal pest control chemicals is not permitted (eg food quality standards), or when insects are detected within the structure itself (eg dry wood termites in houses).
  2. Fumigation of raw commodities.

Sulfuryl fluoride is effective in eliminating all life stages of beetles, weevils, mites and moths and is suitable for using against:

  • stored product insects (SPIs); and
  • wood-boring insects.

Sulfuryl fluoride easily penetrates hard-to-reach areas inside processing equipment and plant machinery, with no side effects from damage or corrosion to machinery and control systems.

Methyl bromide

Methyl bromide fumigation was a globally significant disinfestation treatment for many years. It has a reputation for effectiveness against a wide range of pests, which are noted on the relevant labels, and became the most commonly used fumigant.

In recent years, however, methyl bromide has been identified as a major ozone depleter. In late 2004, methyl bromide was removed as a fumigant for use in any area other than quarantine and preshipment applications under the Montreal Protocol. The implications of this are that, for general fumigation purposes, there is not a fumigant that has a 24-hour effective duration.

The use of methyl bromide is banned in all EU countries but is still used outside of the EU in authorised countries for quarantine and preshipment purposes.


Phosphine fumigation is a simple, cost-effective method of eliminating Stored Product Insect Pests (SPIs) such as beetles, weevils, mites and moths in bulk commodities. It is also used to control rats on farms and moles in horticultural environments.

 Stored Product Insects:

Stored Product Insects can infest bulk commodities such as cocoa, rice, nuts and animal feed, and also other raw materials used for food and feed manufacture.

  • Phosphine is an accepted treatment for most bulk food produce including cereals, grains, dried fruit, nuts, rice, cocoa and coffee beans.
  • It eliminates all life cycle stages of the target pest and has the advantages of being non-tainting and leaving no pesticide residues.
 Nitrogen/CO2 Controlled Atmosphere Technology:

Controlled Atmosphere Technology (CAT) is an effective fumigation system that uses nitrogen or carbon dioxide to treat delicate objects without damaging them.

  • Commonly treated objects include museum artefacts, historical clothing, tapestries, antiquities, fragile textiles, paintings, books and antique furniture.
  • CAT is also used to treat objects made of precious metals, copper, brass and silks.
  • It is effective against textile pests, including the case-bearing clothes moth and common clothes moth, and also woodworm (common furniture beetle).

How to treat objects:

  • Objects are sealed inside a special polymer membrane bubble and the air is replaced with regulated concentrations of nitrogen or carbon dioxide gas for a period up to several weeks.
  • The process effectively eliminates all life stages of pest insects and leaves no harmful residues on objects.

Carbon dioxide is non-flammable, colourless and odourless unless at high concentration, when it has a slightly acid taste. A carbon dioxide concentration above 37.5% in air is toxic to most insects, but the actual concentration used for treatment depends on exposure time and needs to take account of sorption and leakage.

Nitrogen is an inert gas commonly used in industry, such as for preserving freshness of packaged foods. It is the major component of the atmosphere, constituting approximately 80% of the air we breathe.

At high concentrations it can eliminate an insect infestation in a bulk commodity using the same principle as carbon dioxide. A nitrogen purge typically uses three times the volume of the storage to attain an oxygen concentration below 0.5%, the required concentration to kill insects. This level must be maintained for a certain time to kill the pests.

Nitrogen is also used to treat paintings to avoid changes in colour pigments due to fluctuations in humidity.

Our Service Offerings on Fumigation Services:

                          As part of the FumiSeal Service,  KPC now provides proof of the efficacy of our services, with the help of our proprietary Bioassay Vials.

  • Specially designed for fumigation.
  • Contains live breeding colony of stored-product related pest insects.
  • Used for a wide range of commodities.


July 2019
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